The Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS) was supported by the programme Ambient Assisted Living AAL
Coordinator: Paul Verschure, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Dates: April 1, 2009-2012
RGS is a novel ICT Virtual Reality (VR) tool for the rehabilitation of motor deficits of the upper extremities after brain lesions due to stroke. The system deploys an individualized and specific deficit oriented game training that combines movement execution with the observation of a correlated action by virtual limbs that are displayed in a first-person perspective. RGS is based on the considerations that brain plasticity around the brain areas affected by stroke remains throughout life. This can help to achieve functional reorganization of areas affected by stroke by means of the activation of secondary motor areas such as the so called mirror neurons system. As a multi-level adaptive tool, RGS provides tasks oriented game training with individualized graded complexity. Additionally, the system retains qualitative and quantitative information of the performance of the subject/player during the tasks, hence allowing for a detailed assessment of the deficits of the patient player and their recovery dynamics. The RGS approach is currently being evaluated in a randomized clinical study and the initial results with 14 patients have demonstrated positive impact.
 Belén Rubio Ballester, Jens Nirme, Esther Duarte, Ampar Cuxart, Susana Rodriguez, Paul Verschure and Armin Duff (2015), “The visual amplification of goal-oriented movements counteracts acquired non-use in hemiparetic stroke patients”, Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 12:50 ; doi 10.1186/s12984-015-0039-z.
 Grechuta, K, Rubio, B, Duff, A, Duarte Oller, E, and Verschure, P (2014), “Intensive language-action therapy in virtual reality for a rehabilitation gaming system“, Proc. 10th Intl Conf. on Disability, Virtual Reality and Assoc. Technologies, PM Sharkey, L Pareto, J Broeren, M Rydmark (Eds), pp. 265-273, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2-4 Sept. 2014
 Rubio, B., Nirme, J., Duarte, E., Cuxart, A., Rodriguez, S., Duff, A., & Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2013). Virtual Reality Based Tool for Motor Function Assessment in Stroke Survivors. In J. L. Pons, D. Torricelli & M. Pajaro (Eds.), Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation (Vol. 1, pp. 1037-1041): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
 Maier, M., Rubio Ballester, B., Duarte, E., Duff, A. and Verschure, Paul F.M.J. (2012). “Social Integration of Stroke Patients through the Multiplayer Rehabilitation Gaming System“. Games for Training, Education, Health and Sports. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 8395, 2014, pp 100-114.
 Rodriguez, S., Bermudez i Badia, S., Cameirão, M. S., Fina, A. C., Duarte, E., Duff, A., Verschure, P. F. M. J., et al. (2011). “Effects of Virtual Reality Upper Limb Based Training (Rehabilitation Gaming System) on Spasticity, Shoulder Pain, and Depression After Stroke”. 2011 AAPM&R annual assembly (Vol. 3, p. S160). Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.08.013.
 Nirme, J., A. Duff, and P.F.M.J. Verschure. “Adaptive rehabilitation gaming system: On-line individualization of stroke rehabilitation”. in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2011. IEEE.
 Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2011). “Neuroscience, virtual reality and neurorehabilitation: brain repair as a validation of brain theory”. Conference proceedings for the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. (Vol. 2011, pp. 2254–7). IEEE.
 Nirme, J., Duff A., & Verschure P.F.M.J. (2012) “Adaptive Enhanced Mapping Of Upper Limb Movement In A Virtual Reality System For Stroke Rehabilitation”. Conference Abstract presented at the 8th FENS Forum of Neuroscience, Barcelona, Spain.
 Rubio, B., Nirme, J., Duarte, E., Cuxart, A., Rodriguez, S., Duff, A., & Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2013). “Virtual Reality Based Tool for Motor Function Assessment in Stroke Survivors”. In J. L. Pons, D. Torricelli & M. Pajaro (Eds.), Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation (Vol. 1, pp. 1037-1041): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
 Nirme, J., Rubio, B., Duff, A., Duarte, E., Rodriguez, S., Cuxart, A., & Verschure, P. F. M. J. (2013). “At Home Motor Rehabilitation in the Chronic Phase of Stroke Using the Rehabilitation Gaming System”. In J. L. Pons, D. Torricelli, & M. Pajaro (Eds.), Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation SE – 151 (Vol. 1, pp. 931–935). Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
 Duff, J. Nirme, B.Rubio, E. Duarte, A. Cuxart, S. Rodríguez, P.F.M.J. Verschure “The optimal dosage of the Rehabilitation Gaming System: The impact of a longer period of virtual reality based and standard occupational training on upper limb recovery in the acute phase of stroke”. Abstract presented during the 22nd European Stroke Conference 2013, LONDON, UK.
 Ballester, B. R., Nirme, J., Duarte, E., Cuxart, A., Rodriguez, S., Verschure, P., & Duff, A. (2015). “The visual amplification of goal-oriented movements counteracts acquired non-use in hemiparetic stroke patients“. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 12(1), 50.
 Prochnow, D., Bermudez I Badia, S., Schmidt, J., Duff, A., Brunheim, S., Kleiser, R., Seitz, R., et al. “A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of visuomotor processing in a virtual reality-based paradigm: Rehabilitation Gaming System“. The European journal of neuroscience, (January), 1–7, 2013.
 Mónica S. Cameirão, Sergi Bermúdez i Badia, Esther Duarte, Antonio Frisoli, and Paul F.M.J. Verschure. The combined impact of Virtual Reality Neurorehabilitation and its interfaces on upper extremity functional recovery in patients with chronic stroke. “Stroke”, vol. 43 (10) 2720-2728, 2012